This is a clinical practice guideline for patients undergoing endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) for the real-time guidance of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal and hilar structures and parabronchial lung masses. The guideline discusses the technical aspects of linear EBUS-TBNA, including patient factors (e.g. sedation), procedural aspects (e.g. ultrasonographic features of lymph nodes, needle size, number of needle passes, use of suction, and presence of rapid on-site cytologic evaluation), and proceduralists’ aptitude (i.e. training) are specifically addressed.